Toxicology is the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living systems, whether they be human, animal, plant or microbe. 'Adverse effect' can range from a life threatening injury to something that might be considered a minor annoyance. A mild irritant that causes watering of the eyes may not seem like a significant or real adverse effect, but for the person operating fine equipment, such effect can be not only deleterious but potentially dangerous.
Toxicology is an inter-disciplinary science that integrates the principles and methods of many fields: chemistry, biology, pharmacology, molecular biology, physiology and medicine. For example, by combining the study of the physiological effects of certain chemical structures and the molecular biological mechanisms that explain those effects, the toxicology can provide better understanding of the actions of a class of chemical substances, a finding of value to the chemist.
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